(2) Average the results of the outdoor and indoor samples. (3) Are the proposed provisions addressing control of microbial contamination effective, feasible, or necessary? This survey is the only source of national level-data on both commercial building characteristics and energy consumption. OSHA did not estimate an additional cost for housekeeping since such activities would have been performed prior to the promulgation of the proposed standard. Of the comments that specifically addressed the question of whether OSHA should regulate IAQ, a majority (75%) indicate support for regulation. [Ex. A potentially more significant uncertainty associated with distribution is the possibility of pharmacokinetically significant tissue binding of nicotine. Human activity pattern studies utilize random samples of human activity patterns using questionnaires and time-diary data to provide detailed generalizable data about human behavior. Building enclosures had lower insulating values and allowed more infiltration. Armed with new data that show health effects from indoor air pollutants, plaintiffs who believe that they have been injured by the air inside their workplaces are beginning to take the offensive. An even greater level of variability can be expected for the kinetic parameters for the renal clearance of nicotine and cotinine. The number of buildings occupied with establishments with fewer than 20 employees is estimated at 3.7 million or 82 percent of all buildings. XII. Microbial Contaminants Surgical repair may be done to fix breathing and heart problems, but it may also be done for cosmetic reasons—to make the chest look normal. The polyamines contained in tobacco smoke, spermidine, spermine, and their diamine precursor, putrescine, are believed to have an essential role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. And finally, OSHA would like additional comment on whether it is feasible in hot and humid climates to achieve relative humidities of 60% or less. The extent to which outside air ventilation is effective in diluting indoor contaminants depends on how well outside air is mixed with indoor air and is reflected by ventilation efficiency. Informing employees can be accomplished, for example, through written means such as fact sheets, memos, or posted bulletins. As published, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 did not include any summary and/or explanation documentation which would explain the basis of the consensus standard. (b) Metabolism. In fact, carbon monoxide has a much greater affinity for hemoglobin than does oxygen and binds very strongly with hemoglobin making it unavailable for the transport of oxygen. (2) What length of time should the records required to be established under this proposal be required to be retained? The approximate amount of time required for the presentation; 5. 4-74]. 4-197] have also shown that the rate of tumors among mice exposed to the gas phase was greater than animals exposed to the whole smoke. The survey, requested information from employed individuals on whether during the past two weeks anyone smoked in their immediate work area. Since there is no definition of, nor an established method for quantifying, exposure, it is not possible to determine a "dose limit" that would eliminate significant risk. Cummings et al. In conclusion, there are multiple pathways by which ETS may damage the heart. OSHA responded in May 1992 that such a standard was under consideration. (1), Irritant, nervous system, liver, kidney. 3-444b). ), in some cases by an order of magnitude or higher (Tables III-6 and III-7). At 18 days of gestation, blood samples were taken and carbon monoxide levels were measured. Although the presiding officer is an Administrative Law Judge and questioning by interested persons is allowed on crucial issues, the proceeding is informal and legislative in type. The percentage of subjects exposed at home, but not at work was 7% (n=23). [Ex. There is ample precedent in OSHA rulemaking proceedings for the regulation of working conditions to avoid health impairments that are material but not life threatening. Benz (a)anthracene 4-155, 4-309] and the chief effort associated with pharmacokinetic model parameterization in the human is the determination of the necessary level of detail for the physiological description, grouping of the tissues not meriting a separate description into pharmacokinetically similar groups, and the association of the proper volume and flow data with the selected groupings. OSHA has considered all data submitted in response to the Request for Information, as well as other scientific data which has been made a part of the record in this proceeding in arriving at these proposed provisions regarding regulation of indoor air quality. OSHA evaluated studies on exposure to ETS to determine the importance and weight of each study in the overall hazard identification process. Warehouses and assembly buildings both are almost as numerous as office buildings, but account for less floorspace. Nonsmokers are exposed to mainstream smoke after it has been exhaled by smokers, and to diluted sidestream smoke. (c) Training for HVAC Maintenance Workers and It is useful to review these for insight into the problems from the victims' point of view. 1. 3-32], vehicular exhaust [Ex. Synergism may occur between chemical contaminants, such as ozone and VOCs, in aggravating asthma [Ex. Usually, it is extremely difficult to isolate the role of occupational exposures in causing the disease, especially if workers are exposed to many toxic substances and the exposure is not necessarily limited to the workplace such as the case for ETS. Studies evaluating these same effects are not as plentiful in adults. 3-56, 3-436, 3-496, 3-500, 3-505]. 3-630L]. Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee. 4-254] includes separate compartments for the brain, heart, and skin. Which provisions lend themselves to application to industrial environments? In some cases some establishments especially the large ones may already have developed such information. Available biomarkers of ETS, such as nicotine, clearly show that nonsmoker exposure is of sufficient magnitude to be absorbed and to result in measurable levels of these biomarkers. In some cases, building design flaws contribute to the poor quality of indoor air, such as locating air intake vents near to a loading dock or parking garage. For which provisions should implementation periods be either decreased or increased and why? 4-239, 4-299], and numerous other physiological effects [Ex. 4-35, 4-38, 4-52, 4-118, 4-148, 4-164, 4-175, 4-183, 4-192, 4-283, 4-286, 4-296, 4-326]. Tell us what you think about our website - send an email to. High concentrations of contaminants in indoor air can have adverse effects on materials and equipment. There is also a strong correlation between cotinine measured in body fluids and ETS exposure. In addition, 5,583 to 32,502 lung cancer deaths and 97,700 to 577,818 coronary heart disease deaths related to occupational exposure to ETS will be prevented over the next 45 years. Clear liquids include water, Pedialyte®, Kool-Aid® and juices you can see through, such as apple or white grape juice. The following discussion offers an explanation of OSHA's approach to this issue and an opportunity for the Agency to solicit comment on specific points of concern as they relate to the use of pharmacokinetics in estimating occupational risk from exposure to ETS. 4-123]. Footnote(7) The commercial building and energy consumption survey is a triennial national sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers. OSHA also assumed that 50 percent of the workers will require such training. 4-85, 4-120, 4-122, 4-138, 4-139, 4-142, 4-148, 4-154, 4-191, 4-277, 4-295]. PBPK models of nicotine and cotinine have been described for both rats [Exs. Exposure It should be noted that the sales and profit data, while the most recent available, reflect conditions during a cyclical trough; therefore, impacts may depict a worst case scenario. Commonly found in the outdoor environment, the bacteria are as expected, commonly found in untreated potable and nonpotable water. Shirley J. Hansen. Your child will have an epidural (ep-i-DOOR-ul) catheter while in the hospital. These affected individuals may also be at increased risk of pulmonary infections due to the synergistic effect between chemical and microbial contaminants [Ex. Carboxyhemoglobin content for each treatment group was determined immediately after the last smoke exposure and percent carboxyhemoglobin for each group was found to be: 4 week exposure-mainstream=7.2(1B)1.2 and 25% sidestream=11.8(1B)0.7; 8 week exposure mainstream=6.1(1B)1.2 and 25% sidestream=11.9(1B)0.9; 20 week exposure mainstream=8.3(1B)0.9, 10% sidestream=6.30(1B)0.5, 25% sidestream=10.8(1B)0.8 and 50% sidestream=18.3(1B)1.2. Randolph describes chemical sensitivity to dry cleaning chemicals, and rug shampoo, and implicates moldy carpets in producing allergenic substances. No effects in the lung were reported. However, all projects in which asbestos-related work was being performed were sealed off from the building occupants. (a) Smoking ordinances(8) and policies. Public Participation Nontransferability of occupational skills and high national unemployment rates sharply reduce a worker's expectation of obtaining alternative employment quickly or easily. OSHA used 1.4 as an observed relative risk for upper respiratory conditions. 4-108]. Indoor Air Contaminants Associated With, Low molecular weight proteins from urine and feces, Altered Host Proteins or Chemical Hapten-Carrier Conjugates, Amines, anhydrides, epoxy resins vegetable gums, and isocyanates, Aspergillus spp., Auerobasillium spp., Cephalosporium spp., Penicillium spp, Arthropod- and microbially-contaminated grains and flours, Dust residues from carpet cleaning agents, Table III-6. Indoor air contaminants emanate from a broad array of sources that can originate both outside of structures as well as from within a building. In the facilities industry, potable hot water systems are typically considered plumbing systems and not HVAC systems. Its victims display all or some of a pattern of irritation of the mucous membranes, and the worst affected individuals have neurological symptoms as well. However, the Agency currently does not have adequate data to conduct a quantitative risk assessment addressing these risks in the workplace. Other provisions of this section require; that buildings without mechanical ventilation be operated and maintained to provide natural ventilation; that inspections and maintenance of building systems be performed by or under the supervision of the designated person; that the employer establish a written record of building system inspections and maintenance required under this section; that the employer evaluate the need to perform modifications to the building systems to meet the minimum requirements specified in paragraph (d) of this section in response to employee complaints of building-related illnesses. Gairola [Ex. Specifically, paragraphs (c)(3)(i), (c)(3)(ii), and (c)(3)(iii) propose to require general, descriptive information about: the facility, building systems, building function and building use patterns. For example, the definition of "HVAC system" lists what OSHA believes to be typical components of such systems which directly affect indoor air quality. They demonstrated that the sidestream smoke was weakly positive in inducing DNA repair in cultured rat hepatocytes. Thus, under tort law, workers with an occupational disease caused by exposure to a hazardous substance can only file a product liability suit against a third party manufacturer, processor, distributor, sales firm, or contractor. 4-77]. These actions primarily address means that OSHA believes necessary to achieve continued adequate and proper functioning of building systems [Exs. 6. Generation of tobacco smoke is governed by the source emission characteristics of smokers and their tobacco products, whereas removal is primarily determined by the rate of replacement of building air by outside air, with re-emission of surface-sorbed compounds playing a minor role. 3. This periodic visual inspection is focused by the checklist outlined in paragraph (c) and targets those components that directly impact indoor air quality. 4-50] found that 100% of a subset of the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES) III conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics had detectable levels of cotinine in their bodies indicating that everyone in the sample had detectable exposure to tobacco smoke [Ex. Footnote(9) Building systems include but are not limited to the heating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the potable water systems, the energy management system and all other systems in a facility which may impact IAQ. Your child might have a sore throat after the surgery. Formation of putrescine from ornithine is catalyzed by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. (a) Worker Productivity Otto et al. The mean number of hours of exposure was 3.4 (+/- 2.1). In 1987-1988, the California Air Resources Board sponsored a probability-based cross-sectional sample of 1,579 Californians aged 18 years and older, called the California Activity Pattern Survey (CAPS) [Exs. Formaldehyde A recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report [Ex. This definition also intends to focus on those HVAC system components whose failure, degradation, or misuse would adversely impact indoor air quality. Per Section 102 of the 1991 Uniform Building Code as promulgated by the ICBO, the purpose of the building code is "to offer minimum standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and public welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, quality of materials, use and occupancy * * *". (b) Divide that total by the number of samples. 4-98]. 4-33]. Smoking is a leading cause of fire related fatalities. 4-67], Hudgafvel-Pursiainen et al. These types of systems were not designed to dilute multiple point sources of contaminants that are typically found in nonindustrial workplaces (see section III). A written maintenance program is believed to be necessary because levels of HVAC system maintenance vary dramatically and sometimes are deficient where untrained personnel are designated to maintain very complex systems. As indicated in Table III-9, 77% of males and 85% of females were exposed an average of 313 minutes and 350 minutes, respectively. Cellular effects on the pulmonary tissue have also been observed in animals exposed to ETS during experimental studies. Cardiovascular effects resulting from exposure to ETS have been associated with carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine, and more recently with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [Ex. Where this is the case, labor market negotiations are unlikely to reflect accurately the value that workers place on health. The Office of Smoking and Health (OSH) is the Department of Health and Human Services' lead agency in smoking control. The cost of land has shaped buildings into high-rise structures. This study showed that air nicotine, carbon monoxide, and total particulate concentrations increased with ETS exposure, and this increased exposure led to a continuous increase in plasma carboxyhemoglobin, nicotine, and cotinine levels in ETS-exposed rats. In addition, biomarker studies verify that ETS exposure results in detectable uptake of tobacco constituents by nonsmokers [Exs. A productivity gain can, therefore, take the form of either a decrease in the labor hours needed to maintain the level of production or in the form of increased production and net income for the establishment. Inside air contaminants include tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, combustion gases such as carbon monoxide, and occupant-generated bioeffluents. ", Many case reports of severe material impairment of health due to occupational exposure to ETS have been reported to OSHA through submission to the indoor air quality docket [H-122]. Some of the symptoms that characterize SBS include: irritation of eyes, nose and throat, dry mucous membranes and skin and coughs, hoarseness of voice and wheezing, hypersensitivity reaction, nausea and dizziness. However, information available does not quantify the effectiveness of ventilation improvements. N-nitrosodiethanolamine - Employees Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Footnote(1) Based on 73.01 percent nonsmoking employees, Table VI-5. Costs were estimated on an annual basis, with total annual costs calculated as the sum of annualized initial costs and annual recurring costs. Lead 3-446, 3-500] and VOCs [Exs. Why not? Kabat and Wynder [Ex. While it is theoretically possible to minimize employee exposure to ETS in such a work environment through special ventilation, in the absence of modified customer service arrangements, actually eliminating worker exposure to ETS would likely prove difficult. The average cost was approximately $0.3 million and the average duration for a project was 13 weeks. There is uncertainty associated with the quantification of any kind of risk. Exposure Why? These diverse groups may have little or no central authority and direction especially if they are outside contractors. 4-33, 4-41, 4-214]. Why not? 4-333]. This is an essential element because of the interdependence between outside air ventilation rate and the automatic temperature control system. For these establishments, OSHA then applied the percentage of companies that will ban smoking based on the rates provided from a survey conducted by the Administrative Management Society Foundation (AMS) on current practices for smoking policies in the workplace. The outside air ventilation rate of a building affects indoor air quality. For example, the mean values for the terminal half-life of cotinine reported in different studies range from 12 to 21 hours in non-smokers [Exs. This longer half-life at very low concentrations could have the effect of overestimating exposure to ETS in the lowest exposed population. This will most likely result in an underestimate of the true risk for male workers. Authority and Signature 3. After exposure, a Digit Span test was administered. To examine the potential regulatory burden that would be experienced by small establishments, OSHA calculated the ratio of their annual compliance cost to their sales and pre-tax profit for two scenarios for dealing with ETS: (1) provide designated smoking areas, or (2) totally ban smoking in the workplace. Table VI-11, presents OSHA's estimate for the number of maintenance workers needing training and the associated costs. Containment may be checked by using smoke-trails at the door undercut to verify direction of airflow. Following is a review of the evidence concerning the suitability of cotinine as an internal biomarker for ETS exposure. To what extent should implementation periods be decreased or increased for particular provisions? OSHA solicits data, views and comment on all provisions proposed in this notice. To produce health effects, the constituents of ETS must be absorbed and must be present in appropriate concentration at the sites of action. Excluding contamination from building fabric and unknown sources, this suggests that 83 percent of complaints related to IAQ problems would be eliminated by the proposed OSHA standard. (7) Compare the Test Statistic with the second column in the table below. In instances where the information contained in the submission does not justify the amount of time requested, a more appropriate amount of time will be allocated and the participant will be notified of that fact prior to the informal public hearing. What other provisions, if any, should be included to limit the effects that renovation and remodeling activities may have on indoor environments? Which conditions listed in the definition, if any, should not be considered as "building-related illness" and why? To monetize the productivity improvements resulting from implementation of the proposed IAQ standard, OSHA multiplied the average employee payroll by 3.0 percent. All written comments received within the specified comment period will be made a part of the record and will be available for public inspection and copying at the above Docket Office address. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911; also issued under 5 U.S.C. The system was designed to internalize some of the social costs of production, but in reality it has fallen short of compensating workers adequately for occupationally related disease. This in OSHA's view reduces significant risk to only a small percentage of the current risk. 4-311]. Number of establishments included represent 50 percent of large establishments in buildings with 3 or more floors and with floor space greater than 100,000 sq. In summary, the Workers' Compensation system suffers from several shortcomings that seriously reduce its effectiveness in providing incentives for firms to create safe and healthful workplaces. A designated smoking area which is enclosed, exhausted directly to the outside, and maintained under negative pressure is sufficient to contain tobacco smoke within the designated area. Presently, vapor phase nicotine and respirable suspended particulate matter (ETS-RSP) are the most commonly used markers for ETS because of their ease of measurement, knowledge of their emission rate from tobacco combustion, and their relationship to other ETS contaminants [Ex. There are at least 32 epidemiological studies that have attempted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of ETS. Others have reported [Ex. In particular, considerable attention has been given in the scientific literature to the possible use of cotinine concentrations in body fluids as a biomarker of ETS exposure [Exs. Without such data, air quality problems would likely arise due to ignorance of such elements as design occupant densities, equipment schedules, maintenance requirements and frequencies, etc. * * *" It is on the basis of this congressional directive that OSHA has initiated regulatory actions to reduce the adverse health effects associated with occupational exposure to indoor air pollutants. With myCHP, you can request appointments, review test results, and more. Benzo (a)pyrene Inside air contaminants are emitted from building materials and furnishings, appliances, office equipment and supplies, biological organisms, and of course, pollutants introduced by the building occupants themselves. Another human model [Ex. The newer the material, the higher the potential for emitting contaminants. It is not uncommon for spaces to be loaded or used in ways beyond the original design intent which may adversely impact IAQ, such as putting up walls for private offices, exceeding intended occupant densities, and bringing into the space new contaminant sources. (1), Footnote(1) NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. The designated person would be in a position to mitigate the consequences of such diversity by being aware and responsible for the overall environmental conditions in the building or facility. This was demonstrated in the study by Davis et al. 4-262] estimated that 86% of the U.S. population was exposed to ETS, and that the workplace was more important than the home as a source of ETS exposure, when weighted by the duration, exposure intensity, and probability of exposure. Both nicotine and cotinine are tobacco-specific. Clearly, the relatively low capacity, high affinity binding associated with nicotine is unlikely to effect total systemic clearance except at very low concentrations. Older individuals and those with preexisting pulmonary disease are more susceptible to the pulmonary effects of exposure to ETS. Condensates from both mainstream [Exs. This will insure that the pathways are kept free of hazardous substances. 4-40, 4-80]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. These normal use patterns may be altered by visitor frequency and should be accounted for in the monitoring scheme. Workers sighted cockroaches, silverfish, and steam bugs near the coffee shop and on back stairs. - Nicotine in Nonsmokers' Air: Personal Monitors(1), Table IV-1. In these instances the various employer/lessees would probably share responsibility for compliance with the proposed standard. 3-26], which must include the specific remedial or maintenance actions taken, the name and affiliation of the individual performing the work, and the date of the inspection or maintenance activity; and records of employee complaints of building-related illness required to be established under paragraph (c)(5) of this section [Ex. As shown in Table VI-5, OSHA estimates that the proposed standard will prevent 3.0 million severe headaches and 4.5 million upper respiratory symptoms over the next 45 years. Therefore, as presented in Table VI-3, the total number of problem buildings is estimated to be 1.4 million buildings. However, a study of 3,383 nonsmokers was unable to substantiate an effect of tea drinking on serum cotinine levels for self-reported daily tea consumption [Ex. Requiring records to be retained to preserve a 3 year history of building-related illness, is proposed as being reasonable to aid in the tracking of air quality trends and past experiences [Ex. All government buildings were considered single tenant buildings. - Viruses. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911; also issued under 5 U.S.C. For investigating some of the concerns associated with the use of cotinine as a biomarker, however, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) description would be preferred. HVAC system total capacity may be able to handle these changes from original design loads but little is done to balance the available capacity among the individual zones that may be overused or underused. 4-255]. Common office supplies and equipment have been found to release hazardous chemicals - especially duplicators and copiers. Also defined as all non-manufacturing/industrial and non-residential structures collected from indoor air quality as 's... 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